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深入理解Android Instant Run运行机制

开发进阶 loading 4050浏览 0评论

摘要: Instant Run Instant Run,是android studio2.0新增的一个运行机制,在你编码开发、测试或debug的时候,它都能显著减少你对当前应用的构建和部署的时间。通俗的解释就是,当你在Android Studio中改了你的代码,Instant Run可以很快的让你看到你修改的效果。

Instant Run

Instant Run,是android studio2.0新增的一个运行机制,在你编码开发、测试或debug的时候,它都能显著减少你对当前应用的构建和部署的时间。通俗的解释就是,当你在Android Studio中改了你的代码,Instant Run可以很快的让你看到你修改的效果。而在没有Instant Run之前,你的一个小小的修改,都肯能需要几十秒甚至更长的等待才能看到修改后的效果。

传统的代码修改及编译部署流程

传统的代码修改及编译流程如下:构建整个apk → 部署app → app重启 → 重启Activity
这里写图片描述

Instant Run编译和部署流程

Instant Run构建项目的流程:构建修改的部分 → 部署修改的dex或资源 → 热部署,温部署,冷部署

热拔插,温拔插,冷拔插

热拔插:代码改变被应用、投射到APP上,不需要重启应用,不需要重建当前activity。

场景:适用于多数的简单改变(包括一些方法实现的修改,或者变量值修改)

温拔插:activity需要被重启才能看到所需更改。

场景:典型的情况是代码修改涉及到了资源文件,即resources。

冷拔插:app需要被重启(但是仍然不需要重新安装)

场景:任何涉及结构性变化的,比如:修改了继承规则、修改了方法签名等。

首次运行Instant Run,Gradle执行过程

一个新的App Server类会被注入到App中,与Bytecode instrumentation协同监控代码的变化。

同时会有一个新的Application类,它注入了一个自定义类加载器(Class Loader),同时该Application类会启动我们所需的新注入的App Server。于是,Manifest会被修改来确保我们的应用能使用这个新的Application类。(这里不必担心自己继承定义了Application类,Instant Run添加的这个新Application类会代理我们自定义的Application类)

至此,Instant Run已经可以跑起来了,在我们使用的时候,它会通过决策,合理运用冷温热拔插来协助我们大量地缩短构建程序的时间。

在Instant Run运行之前,Android Studio会检查是否能连接到App Server中。并且确保这个App Server是Android Studio所需要的。这同样能确保该应用正处在前台。

热拔插

这里写图片描述
Android Studio monitors: 运行着Gradle任务来生成增量.dex文件(这个dex文件是对应着开发中的修改类) Android Studio会提取这些.dex文件发送到App Server,然后部署到App(Gradle修改class的原理,请戳链接)。

App Server会不断监听是否需要重写类文件,如果需要,任务会被立马执行。新的更改便能立即被响应。我们可以通过打断点的方式来查看。

温拔插

温拔插需要重启Activity,因为资源文件是在Activity创建时加载,所以必须重启Activity来重载资源文件。

目前来说,任何资源文件的修改都会导致重新打包再发送到APP。但是,google的开发团队正在致力于开发一个增量包,这个增量包只会包装修改过的资源文件并能部署到当前APP上。

所以温拔插实际上只能应对少数的情况,它并不能应付应用在架构、结构上的变化。

注:温拔插涉及到的资源文件修改,在manifest上是无效的(这里的无效是指不会启动Instant Run),因为,manifest的值是在APK安装的时候被读取,所以想要manifest下资源的修改生效,还需要触发一个完整的应用构建和部署。

冷拔插

应用部署的时候,会把工程拆分成十个部分,每部分都拥有自己的.dex文件,然后所有的类会根据包名被分配给相应的.dex文件。当冷拔插开启时,修改过的类所对应的.dex文件,会重组生成新的.dex文件,然后再部署到设备上。

之所以能这么做,是依赖于Android的ART模式,它能允许加载多个.dex文件。ART模式在android4.4(API-19)中加入,但是Dalvik依然是首选,到了android5.0(API-21),ART模式才成为系统默认首选,所以Instant Run只能运行在API-21及其以上版本。

使用Instant Run一些注意点

Instant Run是被Android Studio控制的。所以我们只能通过IDE来启动它,如果通过设备来启动应用,Instant Run会出现异常情况。在使用Instant Run来启动Android app的时候,应注意以下几点:

  1. 如果应用的minSdkVersion小于21,可能多数的Instant Run功能会挂掉,这里提供一个解决方法,通过product flavor建立一个minSdkVersion大于21的新分支,用来debug。
  2. Instant Run目前只能在主进程里运行,如果应用是多进程的,类似微信,把webView抽出来单独一个进程,那热、温拔插会被降级为冷拔插。
  3. 在Windows下,Windows Defender Real-Time Protection可能会导致Instant Run挂掉,可用通过添加白名单列表解决。
  4. 暂时不支持Jack compiler,Instrumentation Tests,或者同时部署到多台设备。

结合Demo深度理解

为了方便大家的理解,我们新建一个项目,里面不写任何的逻辑功能,只对application做一个修改:
这里写图片描述

首先,我们先反编译一下APK的构成,使用的工具:d2j-dex2jar 和jd-gui。

这里写图片描述
我们要看的启动的信息就在这个instant-run.zip文件里面,解压instant-run.zip,我们会发现,我们真正的业务代码都在这里。

这里写图片描述

从instant-run文件中我们猜想是BootstrapApplication替换了我们的application,Instant-Run代码作为一个宿主程序,将app作为资源dex加载起来。

那么InstantRun是怎么把业务代码运行起来的呢?

Instant Run如何启动app

按照我们上面对instant-run运行机制的猜想,我们首先看一下appliaction的分析attachBaseContext和onCreate方法。

attachBaseContext()

protected void attachBaseContext(Context context) {
       if (!AppInfo.usingApkSplits) {
            String apkFile = context.getApplicationInfo().sourceDir;
            long apkModified = apkFile != null ? new File(apkFile).lastModified() : 0L;
            createResources(apkModified);
            setupClassLoaders(context, context.getCacheDir().getPath(), apkModified);
       }
       createRealApplication();
       super.attachBaseContext(context);
       if (this.realApplication != null) {
            try {
                 Method attachBaseContext = ContextWrapper.class.getDeclaredMethod("attachBaseContext", new Class[] { Context.class });
                 attachBaseContext.setAccessible(true);
                 attachBaseContext.invoke(this.realApplication, new Object[] { context });
            } catch (Exception e) {
                 throw new IllegalStateException(e);
            }
      }
}

我们依次需要关注的方法有:

createResources → setupClassLoaders → createRealApplication → 调用realApplication的attachBaseContext方法

createResources()

private void createResources(long apkModified) {
       FileManager.checkInbox();
       File file = FileManager.getExternalResourceFile();
       this.externalResourcePath = (file != null ? file.getPath() : null);
       if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
            Log.v("InstantRun", "Resource override is " + this.externalResourcePath);
       }
       if (file != null) {
            try {
                 long resourceModified = file.lastModified();
                 if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                      Log.v("InstantRun", "Resource patch last modified: " + resourceModified);
                      Log.v("InstantRun", "APK last modified: " + apkModified
                           + " "
                           + (apkModified > resourceModified ? ">" : "<")
                           + " resource patch");
                 }
                 if ((apkModified == 0L) || (resourceModified <= apkModified)) {
                      if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                            Log.v("InstantRun", "Ignoring resource file, older than APK");
                      }
                      this.externalResourcePath = null;
                 }
          } catch (Throwable t) {
                 Log.e("InstantRun", "Failed to check patch timestamps", t);
          }
     }
}

说明:该方法主要是判断资源resource.ap_是否改变,然后保存resource.ap_的路径到externalResourcePath中。

setupClassLoaders()

private static void setupClassLoaders(Context context, String codeCacheDir, long apkModified) {
       List dexList = FileManager.getDexList(context, apkModified);
       Class server = Server.class;
       Class patcher = MonkeyPatcher.class;
       if (!dexList.isEmpty()) {
            if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                 Log.v("InstantRun", "Bootstrapping class loader with dex list " + join('\n', dexList));
            }
            ClassLoader classLoader = BootstrapApplication.class.getClassLoader();
            String nativeLibraryPath;
            try {
                  nativeLibraryPath = (String) classLoader.getClass().getMethod("getLdLibraryPath", new Class[0]).invoke(classLoader, new Object[0]);
                  if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                       Log.v("InstantRun", "Native library path: " + nativeLibraryPath);
                  }
            } catch (Throwable t) {
            Log.e("InstantRun", "Failed to determine native library path " + t.getMessage());
            nativeLibraryPath = FileManager.getNativeLibraryFolder().getPath();
      }
      IncrementalClassLoader.inject(classLoader, nativeLibraryPath, codeCacheDir, dexList);
      }
}

说明,该方法是初始化一个ClassLoaders并调用IncrementalClassLoader。
IncrementalClassLoader的源码如下:

public class IncrementalClassLoader extends ClassLoader {
      public static final boolean DEBUG_CLASS_LOADING = false;
      private final DelegateClassLoader delegateClassLoader;
      public IncrementalClassLoader(ClassLoader original, String nativeLibraryPath, String codeCacheDir, List dexes) {
           super(original.getParent());
           this.delegateClassLoader = createDelegateClassLoader(nativeLibraryPath, codeCacheDir, dexes, original);
      }

public Class findClass(String className) throws ClassNotFoundException {
     try {
          return this.delegateClassLoader.findClass(className);
     } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
          throw e;
     }
}
private static class DelegateClassLoader extends BaseDexClassLoader {
     private DelegateClassLoader(String dexPath, File optimizedDirectory, String libraryPath, ClassLoader parent) {
          super(dexPath, optimizedDirectory, libraryPath, parent);
     }

     public Class findClass(String name) throws ClassNotFoundException {
          try {
                return super.findClass(name);
          } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
                throw e;
          }
     }
}

private static DelegateClassLoader createDelegateClassLoader(String nativeLibraryPath, String codeCacheDir, List dexes,
ClassLoader original) {
      String pathBuilder = createDexPath(dexes);
      return new DelegateClassLoader(pathBuilder, new File(codeCacheDir), nativeLibraryPath, original);
}
private static String createDexPath(List dexes) {
      StringBuilder pathBuilder = new StringBuilder();
      boolean first = true;
      for (String dex : dexes) {
           if (first) {
                 first = false;
           } else {
                 pathBuilder.append(File.pathSeparator);
           }
           pathBuilder.append(dex);
      }
      if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
           Log.v("InstantRun", "Incremental dex path is " + BootstrapApplication.join('\n', dexes));
      }
      return pathBuilder.toString();
}
private static void setParent(ClassLoader classLoader, ClassLoader newParent) {
     try {
          Field parent = ClassLoader.class.getDeclaredField("parent");
          parent.setAccessible(true);
          parent.set(classLoader, newParent);
     } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
          throw new RuntimeException(e);
     } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
          throw new RuntimeException(e);
     } catch (NoSuchFieldException e) {
          throw new RuntimeException(e);
     }
}
public static ClassLoader inject(ClassLoader classLoader,
     String nativeLibraryPath, String codeCacheDir, List dexes) {
     IncrementalClassLoader incrementalClassLoader = new IncrementalClassLoader(classLoader, nativeLibraryPath, codeCacheDir, dexes);
     setParent(classLoader, incrementalClassLoader);
     return incrementalClassLoader;
     }
}

inject方法是用来设置classloader的父子顺序的,使用IncrementalClassLoader来加载dex。由于ClassLoader的双亲委托模式,也就是委托父类加载类,父类中找不到再在本ClassLoader中查找。

调用的效果图如下:

这里写图片描述

为了方便我们对委托父类加载机制的理解,我们可以做一个实验,在我们的application做一些Log。

@Override
public void onCreate() {
     super.onCreate();
     try{
           Log.d(TAG,"###onCreate in myApplication");
           String classLoaderName = getClassLoader().getClass().getName();
           Log.d(TAG,"###onCreate in myApplication classLoaderName = "+classLoaderName);
           String parentClassLoaderName = getClassLoader().getParent().getClass().getName();
           Log.d(TAG,"###onCreate in myApplication parentClassLoaderName = "+parentClassLoaderName);
           String pParentClassLoaderName = getClassLoader().getParent().getParent().getClass().getName();
           Log.d(TAG,"###onCreate in myApplication pParentClassLoaderName = "+pParentClassLoaderName);
     }catch (Exception e){
           e.printStackTrace();
     }
}

输出结果:

03-20 10:43:42.475 27307-27307/mobctrl.net.testinstantrun D/MyApplication: ###onCreate in myApplication classLoaderName = dalvik.system.PathClassLoader
03-20 10:43:42.475 27307-27307/mobctrl.net.testinstantrun D/MyApplication: ###onCreate in myApplication parentClassLoaderName = com.android.tools.fd.runtime.IncrementalClassLoader
03-20 10:43:42.475 27307-27307/mobctrl.net.testinstantrun D/MyApplication: ###onCreate in myApplication pParentClassLoaderName = java.lang.BootClassLoader

由此,我们知道,当前PathClassLoader委托IncrementalClassLoader加载dex。

我们继续对attachBaseContext()继续分析:

attachBaseContext.invoke(this.realApplication, new Object[] { context });

createRealApplication

private void createRealApplication() {
      if (AppInfo.applicationClass != null) {
           if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                Log.v("InstantRun", "About to create real application of class name = " + AppInfo.applicationClass);
           }
           try {
               Class realClass = (Class) Class.forName(AppInfo.applicationClass);
               if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                    Log.v("InstantRun", "Created delegate app class successfully : "
                    + realClass + " with class loader "
                    + realClass.getClassLoader());
               }
               Constructor constructor = realClass.getConstructor(new Class[0]);
               this.realApplication = ((Application) constructor.newInstance(new Object[0]));
               if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                    Log.v("InstantRun", "Created real app instance successfully :" + this.realApplication);
               }
          } catch (Exception e) {
               throw new IllegalStateException(e);
          }
     } else {
          this.realApplication = new Application();
     }
}

该方法就是用classes.dex中的AppInfo类的applicationClass常量中保存的app真实的application。由例子的分析我们可以知道applicationClass就是com.xzh.demo.MyApplication。通过反射的方式,创建真是的realApplication。

看完attachBaseContext我们继续看BootstrapApplication();

BootstrapApplication()

我们首先看一下onCreate方法:

onCreate()

public void onCreate() {
      if (!AppInfo.usingApkSplits) {
           MonkeyPatcher.monkeyPatchApplication(this, this, this.realApplication, this.externalResourcePath);
           MonkeyPatcher.monkeyPatchExistingResources(this, this.externalResourcePath, null);
      } else {
           MonkeyPatcher.monkeyPatchApplication(this, this, this.realApplication, null);
      }
      super.onCreate();
      if (AppInfo.applicationId != null) {
           try {
                boolean foundPackage = false;
                int pid = Process.myPid();
                ActivityManager manager = (ActivityManager) getSystemService("activity");
                List processes = manager.getRunningAppProcesses();
                boolean startServer = false;
                if ((processes != null) && (processes.size() > 1)) {
                      for (ActivityManager.RunningAppProcessInfo processInfo : processes) {
                           if (AppInfo.applicationId.equals(processInfo.processName)) {
                                 foundPackage = true;
                                 if (processInfo.pid == pid) {
                                       startServer = true;
                                       break;
                                 }
                           }
                      }
                      if ((!startServer) && (!foundPackage)) {
                           startServer = true;
                           if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                                 Log.v("InstantRun", "Multiprocess but didn't find process with package: starting server anyway");
                           }
                      }
                } else {
                      startServer = true;
                }
                if (startServer) {
                      Server.create(AppInfo.applicationId, this);
                }
           } catch (Throwable t) {
                if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                      Log.v("InstantRun", "Failed during multi process check", t);
                }
                Server.create(AppInfo.applicationId, this);
           }
      }
      if (this.realApplication != null) {
            this.realApplication.onCreate();
      }
}

在onCreate()中我们需要注意以下方法:

monkeyPatchApplication → monkeyPatchExistingResources → Server启动 → 调用realApplication的onCreate方法

monkeyPatchApplication

public static void monkeyPatchApplication(Context context, Application bootstrap, Application realApplication, String externalResourceFile) {
      try {
           Class activityThread = Class.forName("android.app.ActivityThread");
           Object currentActivityThread = getActivityThread(context, activityThread);
           Field mInitialApplication = activityThread.getDeclaredField("mInitialApplication");
           mInitialApplication.setAccessible(true);
           Application initialApplication = (Application) mInitialApplication.get(currentActivityThread);
           if ((realApplication != null) && (initialApplication == bootstrap)) {
                 mInitialApplication.set(currentActivityThread, realApplication);
           }
           if (realApplication != null) {
                Field mAllApplications = activityThread.getDeclaredField("mAllApplications");
                mAllApplications.setAccessible(true);
                List allApplications = (List) mAllApplications.get(currentActivityThread);
                for (int i = 0; i < allApplications.size(); i++) {
                     if (allApplications.get(i) == bootstrap) {
                          allApplications.set(i, realApplication);
                     }
                }
            }
            Class loadedApkClass;
            try {
                  loadedApkClass = Class.forName("android.app.LoadedApk");
            } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
                  loadedApkClass = Class.forName("android.app.ActivityThread$PackageInfo");
            }
            Field mApplication = loadedApkClass.getDeclaredField("mApplication");
            mApplication.setAccessible(true);
            Field mResDir = loadedApkClass.getDeclaredField("mResDir");
            mResDir.setAccessible(true);
            Field mLoadedApk = null;
            try {
                  mLoadedApk = Application.class.getDeclaredField("mLoadedApk");
            } catch (NoSuchFieldException e) {
            }
            for (String fieldName : new String[] { "mPackages", "mResourcePackages" }) {
                 Field field = activityThread.getDeclaredField(fieldName);
                 field.setAccessible(true);
                 Object value = field.get(currentActivityThread);
                 for (Map.Entry> entry : ((Map>) value).entrySet()) {
                       Object loadedApk = ((WeakReference) entry.getValue()).get();
                       if (loadedApk != null) {
                             if (mApplication.get(loadedApk) == bootstrap) {
                                   if (realApplication != null) {
                                         mApplication.set(loadedApk, realApplication);
                                   }
                                   if (externalResourceFile != null) {
                                         mResDir.set(loadedApk, externalResourceFile);
                                   }
                                   if ((realApplication != null) && (mLoadedApk != null)) {
                                         mLoadedApk.set(realApplication, loadedApk);
                                   }
                             }
                       }
                  }
             }
        } catch (Throwable e) {
             throw new IllegalStateException(e);
        }
}

说明:该方法的作用是替换所有当前app的application为realApplication。

替换的过程如下:

1.替换ActivityThread的mInitialApplication为realApplication

2.替换mAllApplications 中所有的Application为realApplication

3.替换ActivityThread的mPackages,mResourcePackages中的mLoaderApk中的application为realApplication。

monkeyPatchExistingResources

public static void monkeyPatchExistingResources(Context context, String externalResourceFile, Collection activities) {
      if (externalResourceFile == null) {
            return;
      }
      try {
           AssetManager newAssetManager = (AssetManager) AssetManager.class.getConstructor(new Class[0]).newInstance(new Object[0]);
Method mAddAssetPath = AssetManager.class.getDeclaredMethod(
           "addAssetPath", new Class[] { String.class });
           mAddAssetPath.setAccessible(true);
           if (((Integer) mAddAssetPath.invoke(newAssetManager, new Object[] { externalResourceFile })).intValue() == 0) {
throw new IllegalStateException(
                "Could not create new AssetManager");
           }
           Method mEnsureStringBlocks = AssetManager.class.getDeclaredMethod("ensureStringBlocks", new Class[0]);
           mEnsureStringBlocks.setAccessible(true);
           mEnsureStringBlocks.invoke(newAssetManager, new Object[0]);
           if (activities != null) {
                for (Activity activity : activities) {
                      Resources resources = activity.getResources();
                      try {
                            Field mAssets = Resources.class.getDeclaredField("mAssets");
                            mAssets.setAccessible(true);
                            mAssets.set(resources, newAssetManager);
                      } catch (Throwable ignore) {
                            Field mResourcesImpl = Resources.class.getDeclaredField("mResourcesImpl");
                            mResourcesImpl.setAccessible(true);
                            Object resourceImpl = mResourcesImpl.get(resources);
                            Field implAssets = resourceImpl.getClass().getDeclaredField("mAssets");
                            implAssets.setAccessible(true);
                            implAssets.set(resourceImpl, newAssetManager);
                      }
                      Resources.Theme theme = activity.getTheme();
                      try {
                            try {
                                 Field ma = Resources.Theme.class.getDeclaredField("mAssets");
                                 ma.setAccessible(true);
                                 ma.set(theme, newAssetManager);
                            } catch (NoSuchFieldException ignore) {
                                 Field themeField = Resources.Theme.class.getDeclaredField("mThemeImpl");
                                 themeField.setAccessible(true);
                                 Object impl = themeField.get(theme);
                                 Field ma = impl.getClass().getDeclaredField("mAssets");
                                 ma.setAccessible(true);
                                 ma.set(impl, newAssetManager);
                            }
                                 Field mt = ContextThemeWrapper.class.getDeclaredField("mTheme");
                                 mt.setAccessible(true);
                                 mt.set(activity, null);
                                 Method mtm = ContextThemeWrapper.class.getDeclaredMethod("initializeTheme", new Class[0]);
                                 mtm.setAccessible(true);
                                 mtm.invoke(activity, new Object[0]);
                                 Method mCreateTheme = AssetManager.class.getDeclaredMethod("createTheme", new Class[0]);
                                 mCreateTheme.setAccessible(true);
                                 Object internalTheme = mCreateTheme.invoke(newAssetManager, new Object[0]);
                                 Field mTheme = Resources.Theme.class.getDeclaredField("mTheme");
                                 mTheme.setAccessible(true);
                                 mTheme.set(theme, internalTheme);
                         } catch (Throwable e) {
                                 Log.e("InstantRun", "Failed to update existing theme for activity " + activity, e);
                         }
                         pruneResourceCaches(resources);
                  }
           }
           Collection> references;
           if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 19) {
                 Class resourcesManagerClass = Class.forName("android.app.ResourcesManager");
                 Method mGetInstance = resourcesManagerClass.getDeclaredMethod("getInstance", new Class[0]);
                 mGetInstance.setAccessible(true);
                 Object resourcesManager = mGetInstance.invoke(null, new Object[0]);
                 try {
                      Field fMActiveResources = resourcesManagerClass.getDeclaredField("mActiveResources");
                      fMActiveResources.setAccessible(true);
                      <ArrayMap> arrayMap = (ArrayMap) fMActiveResources.get(resourcesManager);
                      references = arrayMap.values();
                 } catch (NoSuchFieldException ignore) {
                      Field mResourceReferences = resourcesManagerClass.getDeclaredField("mResourceReferences");
                      mResourceReferences.setAccessible(true);
                      references = (Collection) mResourceReferences.get(resourcesManager);
                 }
          } else {
                 Class activityThread = Class.forName("android.app.ActivityThread");
                 Field fMActiveResources = activityThread.getDeclaredField("mActiveResources");
                 fMActiveResources.setAccessible(true);
                 Object thread = getActivityThread(context, activityThread);
                 <HashMap> map = (HashMap) fMActiveResources.get(thread);
                 references = map.values();
          }
          for (WeakReference wr : references) {
                 Resources resources = (Resources) wr.get();
                 if (resources != null) {
                      try {
                            Field mAssets = Resources.class.getDeclaredField("mAssets");
                            mAssets.setAccessible(true);
                            mAssets.set(resources, newAssetManager);
                      } catch (Throwable ignore) {
                            Field mResourcesImpl = Resources.class.getDeclaredField("mResourcesImpl");
                            mResourcesImpl.setAccessible(true);
                            Object resourceImpl = mResourcesImpl.get(resources);
                            Field implAssets = resourceImpl.getClass().getDeclaredField("mAssets");
                            implAssets.setAccessible(true);
                            implAssets.set(resourceImpl, newAssetManager);
                      }
                      resources.updateConfiguration(resources.getConfiguration(), resources.getDisplayMetrics());
               }
        }
   } catch (Throwable e) {
        throw new IllegalStateException(e);
   }
}

说明:该方法的作用是替换所有当前app的mAssets为newAssetManager。

monkeyPatchExistingResources的流程如下:

1.如果resource.ap_文件有改变,那么新建一个AssetManager对象newAssetManager,然后用newAssetManager对象替换所有当前Resource、Resource.Theme的mAssets成员变量。

2.如果当前的已经有Activity启动了,还需要替换所有Activity中mAssets成员变量

判断Server是否已经启动,如果没有启动,则启动Server。然后调用realApplication的onCreate方法代理realApplication的生命周期。

接下来我们分析下Server负责的**热部署**、**温部署**和**冷部署**等问题。

Server热部署、温部署和冷部署

首先重点关注一下Server的内部类SocketServerReplyThread。

SocketServerReplyThread

private class SocketServerReplyThread extends Thread {
    private final LocalSocket mSocket;

    SocketServerReplyThread(LocalSocket socket) {
        this.mSocket = socket;
    }

    public void run() {
        try {
            DataInputStream input = new DataInputStream(this.mSocket.getInputStream());
            DataOutputStream output = new DataOutputStream(this.mSocket.getOutputStream());
            try {
                handle(input, output);
            } finally {
                try {
                    input.close();
                } catch (IOException ignore) {
                }
                try {
                    output.close();
                } catch (IOException ignore) {
                }
            }
            return;
        } catch (IOException e) {
            if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                Log.v("InstantRun", "Fatal error receiving messages", e);
            }
        }
    }

    private void handle(DataInputStream input, DataOutputStream output) throws IOException {
        long magic = input.readLong();
        if (magic != 890269988L) {
            Log.w("InstantRun", "Unrecognized header format " + Long.toHexString(magic));
            return;
        }
        int version = input.readInt();
        output.writeInt(4);
        if (version != 4) {
            Log.w("InstantRun", "Mismatched protocol versions; app is using version 4 and tool is using version " + version);
        } else {
            int message;
            for (; ; ) {
                message = input.readInt();
                switch (message) {
                    case 7:
                        if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                            Log.v("InstantRun", "Received EOF from the IDE");
                        }
                        return;
                    case 2:
                        boolean active = Restarter.getForegroundActivity(Server.this.mApplication) != null;
                        output.writeBoolean(active);
                        if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                            Log.v("InstantRun", "Received Ping message from the IDE; returned active = " + active);
                        }
                        break;
                    case 3:
                        String path = input.readUTF();
                        long size = FileManager.getFileSize(path);
                        output.writeLong(size);
                        if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                            Log.v("InstantRun", "Received path-exists(" + path + ") from the " + "IDE; returned size=" + size);
                        }
                        break;
                    case 4:
                        long begin = System.currentTimeMillis();
                        path = input.readUTF();
                        byte[] checksum = FileManager.getCheckSum(path);
                        if (checksum != null) {
                            output.writeInt(checksum.length);
                            output.write(checksum);
                            if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                                long end = System.currentTimeMillis();
                                String hash = new BigInteger(1, checksum)
                                        .toString(16);
                                Log.v("InstantRun", "Received checksum(" + path
                                        + ") from the " + "IDE: took "
                                        + (end - begin) + "ms to compute "
                                        + hash);
                            }
                        } else {
                            output.writeInt(0);
                            if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                                Log.v("InstantRun", "Received checksum(" + path
                                        + ") from the "
                                        + "IDE: returning ");
                            }
                        }
                        break;
                    case 5:
                        if (!authenticate(input)) {
                            return;
                        }
                        Activity activity = Restarter
                                .getForegroundActivity(Server.this.mApplication);
                        if (activity != null) {
                            if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                                Log.v("InstantRun",
                                        "Restarting activity per user request");
                            }
                            Restarter.restartActivityOnUiThread(activity);
                        }
                        break;
                    case 1:
                        if (!authenticate(input)) {
                            return;
                        }
                        List changes = ApplicationPatch
                                .read(input);
                        if (changes != null) {
                            boolean hasResources = Server.hasResources(changes);
                            int updateMode = input.readInt();
                            updateMode = Server.this.handlePatches(changes,
                                    hasResources, updateMode);
                            boolean showToast = input.readBoolean();
                            output.writeBoolean(true);
                            Server.this.restart(updateMode, hasResources,
                                    showToast);
                        }
                        break;
                    case 6:
                        String text = input.readUTF();
                        Activity foreground = Restarter
                                .getForegroundActivity(Server.this.mApplication);
                        if (foreground != null) {
                            Restarter.showToast(foreground, text);
                        } else if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                            Log.v("InstantRun",
                                    "Couldn't show toast (no activity) : "
                                            + text);
                        }
                        break;
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

说明:socket开启后,开始读取数据,当读到1时,获取代码变化的ApplicationPatch列表,然后调用handlePatches来处理代码的变化。

handlePatches

private int handlePatches(List changes,
                          boolean hasResources, int updateMode) {
    if (hasResources) {
        FileManager.startUpdate();
    }
    for (ApplicationPatch change : changes) {
        String path = change.getPath();
        if (path.endsWith(".dex")) {
            handleColdSwapPatch(change);
            boolean canHotSwap = false;
            for (ApplicationPatch c : changes) {
                if (c.getPath().equals("classes.dex.3")) {
                    canHotSwap = true;
                    break;
                }
            }
            if (!canHotSwap) {
                updateMode = 3;
            }
        } else if (path.equals("classes.dex.3")) {
            updateMode = handleHotSwapPatch(updateMode, change);
        } else if (isResourcePath(path)) {
            updateMode = handleResourcePatch(updateMode, change, path);
        }
    }
    if (hasResources) {
        FileManager.finishUpdate(true);
    }
    return updateMode;
}

说明:本方法主要通过判断Change的内容,来判断采用什么模式(热部署、温部署或冷部署)

  • 如果后缀为“.dex”,冷部署处理handleColdSwapPatch
  • 如果后缀为“classes.dex.3”,热部署处理handleHotSwapPatch
  • 其他情况,温部署,处理资源handleResourcePatch

handleColdSwapPatch冷部署

private static void handleColdSwapPatch(ApplicationPatch patch) {
    if (patch.path.startsWith("slice-")) {
        File file = FileManager.writeDexShard(patch.getBytes(), patch.path);
        if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
            Log.v("InstantRun", "Received dex shard " + file);
        }
    }
}

说明:该方法把dex文件写到私有目录,等待整个app重启,重启之后,使用前面提到的IncrementalClassLoader加载dex即可。

handleHotSwapPatch热部署

private int handleHotSwapPatch(int updateMode, ApplicationPatch patch) {
    if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
        Log.v("InstantRun", "Received incremental code patch");
    }
    try {
        String dexFile = FileManager.writeTempDexFile(patch.getBytes());
        if (dexFile == null) {
            Log.e("InstantRun", "No file to write the code to");
            return updateMode;
        }
        if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
            Log.v("InstantRun", "Reading live code from " + dexFile);
        }
        String nativeLibraryPath = FileManager.getNativeLibraryFolder()
                .getPath();
        DexClassLoader dexClassLoader = new DexClassLoader(dexFile,
                this.mApplication.getCacheDir().getPath(),
                nativeLibraryPath, getClass().getClassLoader());
        Class aClass = Class.forName(
                "com.android.tools.fd.runtime.AppPatchesLoaderImpl", true,
                dexClassLoader);
        try {
            if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                Log.v("InstantRun", "Got the patcher class " + aClass);
            }
            PatchesLoader loader = (PatchesLoader) aClass.newInstance();
            if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                Log.v("InstantRun", "Got the patcher instance " + loader);
            }
            String[] getPatchedClasses = (String[]) aClass
                    .getDeclaredMethod("getPatchedClasses", new Class[0])
                    .invoke(loader, new Object[0]);
            if (Log.isLoggable("InstantRun", 2)) {
                Log.v("InstantRun", "Got the list of classes ");
                for (String getPatchedClass : getPatchedClasses) {
                    Log.v("InstantRun", "class " + getPatchedClass);
                }
            }
            if (!loader.load()) {
                updateMode = 3;
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Log.e("InstantRun", "Couldn't apply code changes", e);
            e.printStackTrace();
            updateMode = 3;
        }
    } catch (Throwable e) {
        Log.e("InstantRun", "Couldn't apply code changes", e);
        updateMode = 3;
    }
    return updateMode;
}

说明:该方法将patch的dex文件写入到临时目录,然后使用DexClassLoader去加载dex。然后反射调用AppPatchesLoaderImpl类的load方法。
需要强调的是:AppPatchesLoaderImpl继承自抽象类AbstractPatchesLoaderImpl,并实现了抽象方法:getPatchedClasses。而AbstractPatchesLoaderImpl抽象类代码如下:

public abstract class AbstractPatchesLoaderImpl implements PatchesLoader {
      public abstract String[] getPatchedClasses();
      public boolean load() {
           try {
                 for (String className : getPatchedClasses()) {
                       ClassLoader cl = getClass().getClassLoader();
                       Class aClass = cl.loadClass(className + "$override");
                       Object o = aClass.newInstance();
                       Class originalClass = cl.loadClass(className);
                       Field changeField = originalClass.getDeclaredField("$change");
                       changeField.setAccessible(true);
                       Object previous = changeField.get(null);
                       if (previous != null) {
                            Field isObsolete = previous.getClass().getDeclaredField("$obsolete");
                            if (isObsolete != null) {
                                 isObsolete.set(null, Boolean.valueOf(true));
                            }
                       }
                       changeField.set(null, o);
                       if ((Log.logging != null) && (Log.logging.isLoggable(Level.FINE))) {
                            Log.logging.log(Level.FINE, String.format("patched %s", new Object[] { className }));
                       }
                  }
            } catch (Exception e) {
                  if (Log.logging != null) {
                         Log.logging.log(Level.SEVERE, String.format("Exception while patching %s", new Object[] { "foo.bar" }), e);
}
                  return false;
            }
            return true;
      }
}

Instant Run热部署原理

由上面的代码分析,我们对Instant Run的流程可以分析如下:

1,在第一次构建apk时,在每一个类中注入了一个$change的成员变量,它实现了IncrementalChange接口,并在每一个方法中,插入了一段类似的逻辑。

IncrementalChange localIncrementalChange = $change;
if (localIncrementalChange != null) {
     localIncrementalChange.access$dispatch("onCreate.(Landroid/os/Bundle;)V", new Object[] { this, ... });
     return;
}

当$change不为空的时候,执行IncrementalChange方法。

2,当我们修改代码中方法的实现之后,点击InstantRun,它会生成对应的patch文件来记录你修改的内容。patch文件中的替换类是在所修改类名的后面追加$override,并实现IncrementalChange接口。

3,生成AppPatchesLoaderImpl类,继承自AbstractPatchesLoaderImpl,并实现getPatchedClasses方法,来记录哪些类被修改了。

4,调用load方法之后,根据getPatchedClasses返回的修改过的类的列表,去加载对应的$override类,然后把原有类的$change设置为对应的实现了IncrementalChange接口的$override类。

Instant Run运行机制总结

Instant Run运行机制主要涉及到热部署、温部署和冷部署,主要是在第一次运行,app运行时期,有代码修改时。

第一次编译

1.把Instant-Run.jar和instant-Run-bootstrap.jar打包到主dex中

2.替换AndroidManifest.xml中的application配置

3.使用asm工具,在每个类中添加$change,在每个方法前加逻辑

4.把源代码编译成dex,然后存放到压缩包instant-run.zip中

app运行时

1.获取更改后资源resource.ap_的路径

2.设置ClassLoader。setupClassLoader:

使用IncrementalClassLoader加载apk的代码,将原有的BootClassLoader → PathClassLoader改为BootClassLoader → IncrementalClassLoader → PathClassLoader继承关系。

3.createRealApplication:

创建apk真实的application

4.monkeyPatchApplication

反射替换ActivityThread中的各种Application成员变量

5.monkeyPatchExistingResource

反射替换所有存在的AssetManager对象

6.调用realApplication的onCreate方法

7.启动Server,Socket接收patch列表

有代码修改时

1.生成对应的$override类

2.生成AppPatchesLoaderImpl类,记录修改的类列表

3.打包成patch,通过socket传递给app

4.app的server接收到patch之后,分别按照handleColdSwapPatch、handleHotSwapPatch、handleResourcePatch等待对patch进行处理

5.restart使patch生效

在Android插件化、Android热修复、apk加壳/脱壳中借鉴了Instant Run运行机制,所以理解Instant Run运行机制对于向更深层次的研究是很有帮助的,对于我们自己书写框架也是有借鉴意义的。

转载请注明:Android开发中文站 » 深入理解Android Instant Run运行机制

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